Data is defined as facts or information that can be used for reporting, calculations, planning, or analysis. Data can be analyzed and interpreted using statistical procedures to answer “why” or “how.” Data is used to create new information and knowledge, and has the following characteristics:
Statistics are the results of data analysis. They usually come in the form of a table or chart. They are defined as
Qualitative data describes qualities or characteristics of something. It is non-numerical and often collected through interviews, participant observation, and focus groups. It can be subjective and typically describes a perception or point of view. It is particularly useful for gaining cultural insight into social contexts and beliefs of a particular population. Qualitative data can take the form of field notes, audio, transcripts, and video.
Common qualitative collection methods are:
Quantitative data attempts to quantify an answer to a question(s). It is numerical and often collected through measurements, surveys, observations. Quantitative data is statistically analyzed usually in programs such as Excel, R, SPSS, STATA, and more.
Common quantitative collection methods are:
Here is a list of basic terminologies in statistics.
For more information, read this chapter on introduction to statistical literacy or watch the video below.
A correlation describes the connection between two variables. It represents the strength and direction of the relationship between them. Correlations can be either positive or negative. A positive correlation means that higher values on the first variable are related to higher values on the second. A positive correlation also means that lower values on the first are related to lower values on the second. A negative correlation means that as one variable increases, the other variable decreases.
A correlation or association between two variables does not mean they are causally related. Divorce rates in Maine correlates with per capita consumption of margarine does not mean the consumption of margarine causes divorce. If you want to explore more random correlations, look at this website on spurious-correlations.
You can also watch this video on correlation does not imply causation.